Halt - lame on the feet (Gen. 32:31; Ps. 38:17). To "halt between two opinions" (1 Kings 18:21) is supposed by some to be an expression used in "allusion to birds, which hop from spray to spray, forwards and backwards." The LXX. render the expression "How long go ye lame on both knees?" The Hebrew verb rendered "halt" is used of the irregular dance ("leaped upon") around the altar (ver. 26). It indicates a lame, uncertain gait, going now in one direction, now in another, in the frenzy of wild leaping.
Ham - warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black", the youngest son of Noah (Gen. 5:32; comp. 9:22,24). The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated the Canaanites.
One of the most important facts recorded in Gen. 10 is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6, 8, 10). The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia. (See ACCAD.)
The race of Ham were the most energetic of all the descendants of Noah in the early times of the post-diluvian world.
Haman - (of Persian origin), magnificent, the name of the vizier (i.e., the prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1, etc.). He is called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings. He or his parents were brought to Persia as captives taken in war. He was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai the Jew (Esther 7:10). (See ESTHER.)
Hamath - fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 13:21; 34:8), at the foot of Hermon (Josh. 13:5) towards Damascus (Zech. 9:2; Jer. 49:23). It is called "Hamath the great" in Amos 6:2, and "Hamath-zobah" in 2 Chr. 8:3.
Hamath, now Hamah, had an Aramaean population, but Hittite monuments discovered there show that it must have been at one time occupied by the Hittites. It was among the conquests of the Pharaoh Thothmes III. Its king, Tou or Toi, made alliance with David (2 Sam. 8:10), and in B.C. 740 Azariah formed a league with it against Assyria. It was, however, conquered by the Assyrians, and its nineteen districts placed under Assyrian governors. In B.C. 720 it revolted under a certain Yahu-bihdi, whose name, compounded with that of the God of Israel (Yahu), perhaps shows that he was of Jewish origin. But the revolt was suppressed, and the people of Hamath were transported to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24, 30), where they continued to worship their god Ashima. Hamah is beautifully situated on the Orontes, 32 miles north of Emesa, and 36 south of the ruins of Assamea.
The kingdom of Hamath comprehended the great plain lying on both banks of the Orontes from the fountain near Riblah to Assamea on the north, and from Lebanon on the west to the desert on the east. The "entrance of Hamath" (Num. 34:8), which was the north boundary of Palestine, led from the west between the north end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains.
Hammath - warm springs, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35). It is identified with the warm baths (the heat of the water ranging from 136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found on the shore a little to the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam Tabariyeh ("Bath of Tiberias").
Hammelech - the king's, the father of Jerahmeel, mentioned in Jer. 36:26. Some take this word as a common noun, "the king", and understand that Jerahmeel was Jehoiakim's son. Probably, however, it is to be taken as a proper name.
(2.) Heb. makabah, a stone-cutter's mallet (1 Kings 6:7), or of any workman (Judg. 4:21; Isa. 44:12).
(3.) Heb. halmuth, a poetical word for a workman's hammer, found only in Judg. 5:26, where it denotes the mallet with which the pins of the tent of the nomad are driven into the ground.
(4.) Heb. mappets, rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20. This was properly a "mace," which is thus described by Rawlinson: "The Assyrian mace was a short, thin weapon, and must either have been made of a very tough wood or (and this is more probable) of metal. It had an ornamented head, which was sometimes very beautifully modelled, and generally a strap or string at the lower end by which it could be grasped with greater firmness."
(1.) A town in the tribe of Asher, near Zidon (Josh. 19:28), identified with 'Ain Hamul.
(2.) A Levitical city of Naphtali (1 Chr. 6:76).
Hamor - he-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob purchased the plot of ground in which Joseph was afterwards buried (Gen. 33:19). He is called "Emmor" in Acts 7:16. His son Shechem founded the city of that name which Simeon and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the matter of Dinah, Jacob's daughter (Gen. 34:20). Hamor and Shechem were also slain (ver. 26).
(1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:23).
(2.) One of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:43).
(3.) Jer. 35:4.
(4.) A descendant of Saul (1 Chr. 8:38).
(5.) One of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:46).
(6.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra (Neh. 8:7).
(7.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:22).
Hanani - God has gratified me, or is gracious. (1.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4, 25). (2.) A prophet who was sent to rebuke king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king of Syria, against Judah (2 Chr. 16:1-10). He was probably the father of the prophet Jehu (1 Kings 16:7). (3.) Probably a brother of Nehemiah (Neh. 1:2; 7:2), who reported to him the melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards appointed him to have charge of the city gates.
(1.) A chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:24).
(2.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4,23).
(3.) One of Uzziah's military officers (2 Chr. 26:11).
(4.) Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 37:13).
(5.) Jer. 36:12.
(6.) Neh. 10:23.
(7.) Shadrach, one of the "three Hebrew children" (Dan. 1; 6:7).
(8.) Son of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:19, 21).
(9.) Ezra 10:28.
(10.) The "ruler of the palace; he was a faithful man, and feared God above many" (Neh. 7:2).
(11.) Neh. 3:8.
(12.) Neh. 3:30
(13.) A priest, son of Jeremiah (Neh. 12:12).
(14.) A false prophet contemporary with Jeremiah (28:3, 17).
Hand - Called by Galen "the instrument of instruments." It is the symbol of human action (Ps. 9:16; Job 9:30; Isa. 1:15; 1 Tim. 2:8). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Ps. 26:6; 73:13; Matt. 27:24), also of sanctification (1 Cor. 6:11; Isa. 51:16; Ps. 24:3, 4). In Ps. 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version, "My hand was stretched out," etc., instead of, as in the Authorized Version, "My sore ran in the night," etc.
The right hand denoted the south, and the left the north (Job 23:9; 1 Sam. 23:19). To give the right hand was a pledge of fidelity (2 Kings 10:15; Ezra 10:19); also of submission to the victors (Ezek. 17:18; Jer. 50:15). The right hand was lifted up in taking an oath (Gen. 14:22, etc.). The hand is frequently mentioned, particularly the right hand, as a symbol of power and strength (Ps. 60:5; Isa. 28:2). To kiss the hand is an act of homage (1 Kings 19:18; Job 31:27), and to pour water on one's hands is to serve him (2 Kings 3:11). The hand of God is the symbol of his power: its being upon one denotes favour (Ezra 7:6, 28; Isa. 1:25; Luke 1:66, etc.) or punishment (Ex. 9:3; Judg. 2:15; Acts 13:11, etc.). A position at the right hand was regarded as the chief place of honour and power (Ps. 45:9; 80:17; 110:1; Matt. 26:64).
Handmaid - servant (Gen. 16:1; Ruth 3:9; Luke 1:48). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.
Hanes - a place in Egypt mentioned only in Isa. 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt. It was considered the same as Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier, but has been also identified as Ahnas-el-Medeeneh, 70 miles from Cairo.
Hanging - (as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut. 21:23) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged (Nu. 25:4; Deut. 21:22). (See 2 Sam. 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.)
Hanging (as a curtain).
(1.) Heb. masak,
(a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle (Ex. 35:17);
(b) before the door of the tabernacle (26:36, 37);
(c) before the entrance to the most holy place, called "the veil of the covering" (35:12; 39:34), as the word properly means.
(2.) Heb. kelaim, tapestry covering the walls of the tabernacle (Ex. 27:9; 35:17; Num. 3:26) to the half of the height of the wall (Ex. 27:18; comp. 26:16). These hangings were fastened to pillars.
(3.) Heb. bottim (2 Kings 23:7), "hangings for the grove" (R.V., "for the Asherah"); marg., instead of "hangings," has "tents" or "houses." Such curtained structures for idolatrous worship are also alluded to in Ezek. 16:16.
Hannah - favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law (Ex. 23:15; 34:18; Deut. 16:16), probably at the feast of the Passover (comp. Ex. 13:10). On occasion of one of these "yearly" visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct toward her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct (1 Sam. 1:14-16). After hearing her explanation he retracted his injurious charge and said to her, "Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition." Perhaps the story of the wife of Manoah was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his family retired to their quiet home, and there, before another Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son, whom, in grateful memory of the Lord's goodness, she called Samuel, i.e., "heard of God." After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to Eli the aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him: therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as long as he liveth he is granted to the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:27, 28, R.V.). Her gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic song (2:1-10; comp. Luke 1:46-55) which contains the first designation of the Messiah under that name (1 Sam. 2:10, "Annointed" = "Messiah"). And so Samuel and his parents parted. He was left at Shiloh to minister "before the Lord." And each year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent child "a little coat" (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the "robe" of the ephod worn by the high priest, Ex. 28:31), a priestly robe, a long upper tunic (1 Chr. 15:27), in which to minister in the tabernacle (1 Sam. 2:19; 15:27; Job 2:12). "And the child Samuel grew before the Lord." After Samuel, Hannah had three sons and two daughters.
(1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. 34:23).
(2.) A chief of the tribe of Asher (1 Chr. 7:39).
(1.) The son and successor of Nahash, king of Moab. David's messengers, sent on an embassy of condolence to him to Rabbah Ammon, his capital, were so grossly insulted that he proclaimed war against Hanun. David's army, under the command of Joab, forthwith crossed the Jordan, and gained a complete victory over the Moabites and their allies (2 Sam. 10:1-14) at Medeba (q.v.).
(2.) Neh. 3:13. (3.) 3:30.
Hara - mountainous land, a province of Assyria (1 Chr. 5:26), between the Tigris and the Euphrates, along the banks of the Khabur, to which some of the Israelite captives were carried. It has not been identified. Some think the word a variation of Haran.
Haran - (1.) Heb. haran; i.e., "mountaineer." The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father (Gen. 11:27), in Ur of the Chaldees.
(2.) Heb. haran, i.e., "parched;" or probably from the Accadian charana, meaning "a road." A celebrated city of Western Asia, now Harran, where Abram remained, after he left Ur of the Chaldees, till his father Terah died (Gen. 11:31, 32), when he continued his journey into the land of Canaan. It is called "Charran" in the LXX. and in Acts 7:2. It is called the "city of Nahor" (Gen. 24:10), and Jacob resided here with Laban (30:43). It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-aram, and about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line. It was on the caravan route between the east and west. It is afterwards mentioned among the towns taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12). It was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name Carrhae.
(3.) The son of Caleb of Judah (1 Chr. 2:46) by his concubine Ephah.
Hare - (Heb. 'arnebeth) was prohibited as food according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7), "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof." The habit of this animal is to grind its teeth and move its jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the cony (q.v.), it is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like the squirrel, rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance. It is interdicted because, though apparently chewing the cud, it did not divide the hoof.
There are two species in Syria,
(1) the Lepus Syriacus or Syrian hare, which is like the English hare; and
(2) the Lepus Sinaiticus, or hare of the desert. No rabbits are found in Syria.
Hareth - thicket, a wood in the mountains of Judah where David hid when pursued by Saul (1 Sam. 22:5). It was possibly while he was here that the memorable incident narrated in 2 Sam. 23:14-17, 1 Chr. 11:16-19 occurred. This place has not been identified, but perhaps it may be the modern Kharas, on the borders of the chain of mountains some 3 miles east of Keilah.
(1.) The head of the second course of priests (1 Chr. 24:8).
(2.) Ezra 2:32, 39; Neh. 7:35, 42.
(3.) Neh. 3:11.
(1.) Neh. 7:24.
Harlot - (1.) Heb. zonah (Gen. 34:31; 38:15). In verses 21, 22 the Hebrew word used in kedeshah, i.e., a woman consecrated or devoted to prostitution in connection with the abominable worship of Asherah or Astarte, the Syrian Venus. This word is also used in Deut. 23:17; Hos. 4:14. Thus Tamar sat by the wayside as a consecrated kedeshah.
It has been attempted to show that Rahab, usually called a "harlot" (Josh. 2:1; 6:17; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25), was only an innkeeper. This interpretation, however, cannot be maintained.
Jephthah's mother is called a "strange woman" (Judg. 11:2). This, however, merely denotes that she was of foreign extraction.
In the time of Solomon harlots appeared openly in the streets, and he solemnly warns against association with them (Prov. 7:12; 9:14. See also Jer. 3:2; Ezek. 16:24, 25, 31). The Revised Version, following the LXX., has "and the harlots washed," etc., instead of the rendering of the Authorized Version, "now they washed," of 1 Kings 22:38.
To commit fornication is metaphorically used for to practice idolatry (Jer. 3:1; Ezek. 16:15; Hos. throughout); hence Jerusalem is spoken of as a harlot (Isa. 1:21).
(2.) Heb. nokriyah, the "strange woman" (1 Kings 11:1; Prov. 5:20; 7:5; 23:27). Those so designated were Canaanites and other Gentiles (Josh. 23:13). To the same class belonged the "foolish", i.e., the sinful, "woman."
In the New Testament the Greek pornai, plural, "harlots," occurs in Matt. 21:31,32, where they are classed with publicans; Luke 15:30; 1 Cor. 6:15,16; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25. It is used symbolically in Rev. 17:1, 5, 15, 16; 19:2.
(2.) An Old English word for "armour;" Heb. neshek (2 Chr. 9:24).
(3.) Heb. shiryan, a coat of mail (1 Kings 22:34; 2 Chr. 18:33; rendered "breastplate" in Isa. 59:17).
(4.) The children of Israel passed out of Egypt "harnessed" (Ex. 13:18), i.e., in an orderly manner, and as if to meet a foe. The word so rendered is probably a derivative from Hebrew hamesh (i.e., "five"), and may denote that they went up in five divisions, viz., the van, centre, two wings, and rear-guard.
Harod - palpitation, a fountain near which Gideon and his army encamped on the morning of the day when they encountered and routed the Midianites (Judg. 7). It was south of the hill Moreh. The present 'Ain Jalud ("Goliath's Fountain"), south of Jezreel and nearly opposite Shunem, is probably the fountain here referred to (7:4, 5).
Harosheth of the Gentiles - (Judg. 4:2) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin's great army was marshalled before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4). It was situated "at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain of Acre" at the base of Carmel. The name in the Hebrew is Harosheth ha Gojim, i.e., "the smithy of the nations;" probably, as is supposed, so called because here Jabin's iron war-chariots, armed with scythes, were made. It is identified with el-Harithiyeh.
Harp - (Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word kinnor denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2; 137:2).
In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings 10:11, 12). In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of "harps on the Sheminith;" Revised Version, "harps set to the Sheminith;" better perhaps "harps of eight strings." The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16, 23; 18:10; 19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer "harping with their harps" (Rev. 14:2).
Heb. verb sadad, to harrow a field, break its clods (Job 39:10; Isa. 28:4; Hos. 10: 11). Its form is unknown. It may have resembled the instrument still in use in Egypt.
Hart - (Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the clean animals (Deut. 12:15; 14:5; 15:22), and was commonly killed for food (1 Kings 4:23). The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and prophetical books (Isa. 35:6; Cant. 2:8, 9; Lam. 1:6; Ps. 42:1).
Harvest - the season for gathering grain or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib (or April) a handful of ripe ears of corn was offered as a first-fruit before the Lord, and immediately after this the harvest commenced (Lev. 23:9-14; 2 Sam. 21:9, 10; Ruth 2:23). It began with the feast of Passover and ended with Pentecost, thus lasting for seven weeks (Ex. 23:16). The harvest was a season of joy (Ps. 126:1-6; Isa. 9:3). This word is used figuratively Matt. 9:37; 13:30; Luke 10:2; John 4:35. (See AGRICULTURE.)
Hashabiah - regarded by Jehovah. (1.) Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 6:45; 9:14). (2.) A son of Jeduthun (25:3, 19). (3.) Son of Kemuel (26:30). (4.) One of the chief Levites (2 Chr. 35:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 11:22). (6.) One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra (Ezra 8:24). (7.) A chief of the Levites (Neh. 12:24). (8.) Ezra 8:19. (9.) Neh. 3:17.
(2.) One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to the people (Neh. 9:5).
(1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Neh. 11:15; 1 Chr. 9:14).
(2.) Neh. 3:23. 3:11.
(1.) Ezra 2:19; Neh. 7:22.
(2.) Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
(1.) A priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2).
(2.) Ezra 8:2.
(3.) Neh. 3:10.
(4.) Neh. 10:4.
(5.) 1 Chr. 3:22.
Hauran - cave-land, mentioned only in Ezek. 47:16, 18. It was one of the ancient divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay on the south-east of Gaulanitis or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah, extending from the Arnon to the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region in Syria, and to this day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of which have stone doors and massive walls. It retains its ancient name. It was known by the Greeks and Romans as "Auranitis."
1.) A land mentioned in Gen. 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion. It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom.
(2.) A district in Arabia-Felix. It is uncertain whether the tribe gave its name to this region or derived its name from it, and whether it was originally a Cushite (Gen. 10:7) or a Joktanite tribe (10:29; comp. 25:18), or whether there were both a Cushite and a Joktanite Havilah. It is the opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah "in both instances designates the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts." This opinion may be well vindicated.
(3.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7).
(4.) A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23).
(1.) Jair, the son of Manasseh, took some villages of Gilead and called them by this name (Num. 32:41).
(2.) Again, it is said that Jair "took all the tract of Argob," and called it Bashanhavoth-jair (Deut. 3:14). (See also Josh. 13:30; 1 Kings 4:13; 1 Chr. 2:22, 23.)
Hawk - (Heb. netz, a word expressive of strong and rapid flight, and hence appropriate to the hawk). It is an unclean bird (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). It is common in Syria and surrounding countries. The Hebrew word includes various species of Falconidae, with special reference perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby (Hypotriorchis subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The kestrel remains all the year in Palestine, but some ten or twelve other species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to Palestine special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the Falco lanarius. (See NIGHT-HAWK.)
Hay - properly so called, was not in use among the Hebrews; straw was used instead. They cut the grass green as it was needed. The word rendered "hay" in Prov. 27:25 means the first shoots of the grass. In Isa. 15:6 the Revised Version has correctly "grass," where the Authorized Version has "hay."
Hazael - whom God beholds, an officer of Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1 Kings 19:15), after he had put the king to death (2 Kings 8:15). His interview with Elisha is mentioned in 2 Kings 8. The Assyrians soon after his accession to the throne came against him and defeated him with very great loss; and three years afterwards again invaded Syria, but on this occasion Hazael submitted to them. He then turned his arms against Israel, and ravaged "all the land of Gilead," etc. (2 Kings 10:33), which he held in a degree of subjection to him (13:3-7, 22). He aimed at the subjugation also of the kingdom of Judah, when Joash obtained peace by giving him "all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of the Lord, and in the king's house" (2 Kings 12:18; 2 Chr. 24:24). He reigned about forty-six years (B.C.886-840), and was succeeded on the throne by his son Ben-hadad (2 Kings 13:22-25), who on several occasions was defeated by Jehoash, the king of Israel, and compelled to restore all the land of Israel his father had taken.
Hazar-enan - village of fountains, a place on the north-east frontier of Palestine (Num. 34:9, 10). Some have identified it with Ayan ed-Dara in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus. More probably, however, it has been identified with Kuryetein, about 60 miles east-north-east of Damascus. (Comp. Ezek. 47:17; 48:1.)
Hazar-maveth - court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20). It is probably the modern province of Hadramaut, situated on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.
Hazar-shual - village or enclosure of the jackal, a city on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:28; Neh. 11:27). It has been identified with the ruins of Saweh, half-way between Beersheba and Moladah.
Hazeroth - fenced enclosures consisting of "a low wall of stones in which thick bundles of thorny acacia are inserted, the tangled branches and long needle-like spikes forming a perfectly impenetrable hedge around the encampment" of tents and cattle which they sheltered. Such like enclosures abound in the wilderness of Paran, which the Israelites entered after leaving Sinai (Num. 11:35; 12:16; 33:17, 18). This third encampment of the Israelites has been identified with the modern 'Ain el-Hudhera, some 40 miles north-east of Sinai. Here Miriam (q.v.), being displeased that Moses had married a Cushite wife (Num. 12:1), induced Aaron to join with her in rebelling against Moses. God vindicated the authority of his "servant Moses," and Miriam was smitten with leprosy. Moses interceded for her, and she was healed (Num. 12:4-16). From this encampment the Israelites marched northward across the plateau of et-Tih, and at length reached KADESH.
(1.) A stronghold of the Canaanites in the mountains north of Lake Merom (Josh. 11:1-5). Jabin the king with his allied tribes here encountered Joshua in a great battle. Joshua gained a signal victory, which virtually completed his conquest of Canaan (11:10-13). This city was, however, afterwards rebuilt by the Canaanites, and was ruled by a king with the same hereditary name of Jabin. His army, under a noted leader of the name of Sisera, swept down upon the south, aiming at the complete subjugation of the country. This powerful army was met by the Israelites under Barak, who went forth by the advice of the prophetess Deborah. The result was one of the most remarkable victories for Israel recorded in the Old Testament (Josh. 19:36; Judg. 4:2; 1 Sam. 12:9). The city of Hazor was taken and occupied by the Israelites. It was fortified by Solomon to defend the entrance into the kingdom from Syria and Assyria. When Tiglath-pileser, the Assyrian king, invaded the land, this was one of the first cities he captured, carrying its inhabitants captive into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29). It has been identified with Khurbet Harrah, 2 1/2 miles south-east of Kedesh.
(2.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:23). The name here should probably be connected with the word following, Ithnan, HAZOR-ITHNAN instead of "Hazor and Ithnan."
(3.) A district in Arabia (Jer. 49:28-33), supposed by some to be Jetor, i.e., Ituraea.
(4.) "Kerioth and Hezron" (Josh. 15: 25) should be "Kerioth-hezron" (as in the R.V.), the two names being joined together as the name of one place (e.g., like Kirjath-jearim), "the same is Hazor" (R.V.). This place has been identified with el-Kuryetein, and has been supposed to be the home of Judas Iscariot. (See KERIOTH.)
Head-dress - Not in common use among the Hebrews. It is first mentioned in Ex. 28:40 (A.V., "bonnets;" R.V., "head-tires"). It was used especially for purposes of ornament (Job 29:14; Isa. 3:23; 62:3). The Hebrew word here used, tsaniph, properly means a turban, folds of linen wound round the head. The Hebrew word peer, used in Isa. 61:3, there rendered "beauty" (A.V.) and "garland" (R.V.), is a head-dress or turban worn by females (Isa. 3: 20, "bonnets"), priests (Ex. 39:28), a bridegroom (Isa. 61:10, "ornament;" R.V., "garland"). Ezek. 16:10 and Jonah 2:5 are to be understood of the turban wrapped round the head. The Hebrew shebisim (Isa. 3:18), in the Authorized Version rendered "cauls," and marg. "networks," denotes probably a kind of netted head-dress. The "horn" (Heb. keren) mentioned in 1 Sam. 2:1 is the head-dress called by the Druses of Mount Lebanon the tantura.
Heap - When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh. 8), he burned it and "made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But the site of Ai has no other name 'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel, 'the heap' par excellence."
Heart - According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life. "Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably (Deut. 6:5; 26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33), but this is not generally the case.
The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man is designated, according to his heart, wise (1 Kings 3:12, etc.), pure (Ps. 24:4; Matt. 5:8, etc.), upright and righteous (Gen. 20:5, 6; Ps. 11:2; 78:72), pious and good (Luke 8:15), etc. In these and such passages the word "soul" could not be substituted for "heart."
The heart is also the seat of the conscience (Rom. 2:15). It is naturally wicked (Gen. 8:21), and hence it contaminates the whole life and character (Matt. 12:34; 15:18; comp. Eccl. 8:11; Ps. 73:7). Hence the heart must be changed, regenerated (Ezek. 36:26; 11:19; Ps. 51:10-14), before a man can willingly obey God.
The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing reception of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that testimony hardens the heart (Ps. 95:8; Prov. 28:14; 2 Chr. 36:13). "Hardness of heart evidences itself by light views of sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of it; pride and conceit; ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances of God; inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance of divine things."
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